The British Red Ensign Flag

The British Red Ensign Flag (top) was the flag that flew over the American Colonies after 1707.

It was a combination of the English Red Ensign Flag (middle) and the Scottish Red Ensign (bottom). In 1707, Scotland’s Parliament, despite the protest of the Scots, united with England to become Great Britain. Of that union, Scots poet Robert Burns said "We’re bought and sold for English gold, Such a Parcel of Rogues in a Nation!" (Not that we’re here to discuss Scottish History.) At that point, Queen Anne decreed that this Union Flag be the official flag of Great Britain.

The flag itself goes back even into the 1600’s but was not much used as neither the English nor the Scots particularly liked having their own flags adulterated with the other.

If you’ll look at the flag of other countries that were formerly part of Great Britain, Australia, for example, you will see that many of these countries simply took this British Red Ensign Flag and added their own identifier.

For the American Insurgents, the Union Flag was a hated flag. It was a constant reminder that, while the Colonies were part of Great Britain, the King was not allowing them the rights they’d always had as British citizens.

One of the flags the Insurgents flew the colors of the Sons of Liberty Flag. Another one, the Taunton Flag, we’ll get to in due time.

On a side note, the state of Hawaii is the only state in the USA that still has the Union flag as part of its flag, a tribute to it’s history with Great Britain.Flag of Hawaii

Sons of Liberty Flag

     We’ve all heard of the Sons of Liberty.  They were the secret group of Patriots who organized the Boston Tea Party.  But they were so much more.
     They kept track of British troop movements, rode in secret missions to warn when General Gage was sending troops to confiscate arms and powder, and they organized help for Boston when the Intolerable Acts closed Boston Harbor.
     Their flag was made up of nine vertical strips which represented the Loyal Nine.
      These nine men were the founders of the Sons of Liberty in 1765.  The Loyal Nine were even more secret than the Sons of Liberty.  It is only now that we know who they were.  Their names will likely not even ring a bell with you.  They didn’t with me.
J     ohn Avery, Henry Bass, a cousin of Samuel Adams, Thomas Chase,  Stephen Cleverly, Thomas Crafts, Benjamin Edes, Joseph Field, John Smith, George Trott.
     These men went on to be very active in the Sons of Liberty.  At least four of them participated in the Boston Tea Party. 
     The flag became knows as the “Rebellious Stripes.”  It was outlawed by the Crown.  The Colonists merely switched the strips to horizontal and kept using it.  Eventually, they added more strips to equal 13 strips.
     As you’ll see in future posts, this 13 stripe Sons of Liberty flag was used in many of the famous Revolutionary War era flags.  I can’t wait to tell you about my favorite flag.  No hints – be patient. 

Revolutionary Symbols – the Snake

The snake as a symbol for the Revolution was an invention of Ben Franklin. It began with a satire Franklin wrote in 1751, criticizing the practice of Great Britain sending their violent criminals to the Americas to get rid of them. Franklin suggested that America might want to send shiploads of rattlesnakes back to the mother country as a way of returning the favor.

Then, during the French and Indian war, Franklin once again used the snake as a symbol to preach unity to the colonies. His Join or Die political cartoon showed a snake cut into eight pieces.**

There was a myth at the time that a snake that had been cut up into pieces would grow back together if the pieces were put back together. So, Franklin used this myth to urge the Colonies to come together for strength.

In 1765, the snake was again popular along with the words “Dont tread on me” as the Colonies joined together to fight the Stamp Act.

The rattlesnake was eventually incorporated into the well-known Gadsden Flag, which was the first official flag of the Commodore of the US Navy. It was also used in the Culpeper flag flown by the Culpeper VA Minutemen (think Patrick Henry.)



In December 1775, Franklin again sang the praises of the rattlesnake as a symbol of America. In an article in the Pennsylvania Gazette, Franklin said the snake was the perfect symbol:

  • No eye-lids so she is always on the watch, always vigilant.
  • Doesn’t begin an attack, but once in battle, she doesn’t surrender.
  • Her defenses are hidden (in her mouth) so she appears weak. And though the bite is small, it’s deadly.
  • She doesn’t attack until after she gives warning.

Here’s the full article.

I observed on one of the drums belonging to the marines now raising, there was painted a Rattle-Snake, with this modest motto under it, "Don’t tread on me." As I know it is the custom to have some device on the arms of every country, I supposed this may have been intended for the arms of America; and as I have nothing to do with public affairs, and as my time is perfectly my own, in order to divert an idle hour, I sat down to guess what could have been intended by this uncommon device — I took care, however, to consult on this occasion a person who is acquainted with heraldry, from whom I learned, that it is a rule among the learned of that science "That the worthy properties of the animal, in the crest-born, shall be considered," and, "That the base ones cannot have been intended;" he likewise informed me that the ancients considered the serpent as an emblem of wisdom, and in a certain attitude of endless duration – both which circumstances I suppose may have been had in view. Having gained this intelligence, and recollecting that countries are sometimes represented by animals peculiar to them, it occurred to me that the Rattle-Snake is found in no other quarter of the world besides America, and may therefore have been chosen, on that account, to represent her.

But then "the worldly properties" of a Snake I judged would be hard to point out. This rather raised than suppressed my curiosity, and having frequently seen the Rattle-Snake, I ran over in my mind every property by which she was distinguished, not only from other animals, but from those of the same genus or class of animals, endeavoring to fix some meaning to each, not wholly inconsistent with common sense.

I recollected that her eye excelled in brightness, that of any other animal, and that she has no eye-lids. She may therefore be esteemed an emblem of vigilance. She never begins an attack, nor, when once engaged, ever surrenders: She is therefore an emblem of magnanimity and true courage. As if anxious to prevent all pretensions of quarreling with her, the weapons with which nature has furnished her, she conceals in the roof of her mouth, so that, to those who are unacquainted with her, she appears to be a most defenseless animal; and even when those weapons are shown and extended for her defense, they appear weak and contemptible; but their wounds however small, are decisive and fatal. Conscious of this, she never wounds ’till she has generously given notice, even to her enemy, and cautioned him against the danger of treading on her.

Was I wrong, Sir, in thinking this a strong picture of the temper and conduct of America? The poison of her teeth is the necessary means of digesting her food, and at the same time is certain destruction to her enemies. This may be understood to intimate that those things which are destructive to our enemies, may be to us not only harmless, but absolutely necessary to our existence. I confess I was wholly at a loss what to make of the rattles, ’till I went back and counted them and found them just thirteen, exactly the number of the Colonies united in America; and I recollected too that this was the only part of the Snake which increased in numbers. Perhaps it might be only fancy, but, I conceited the painter had shown a half formed additional rattle, which, I suppose, may have been intended to represent the province of Canada.
‘Tis curious and amazing to observe how distinct and independent of each other the rattles of this animal are, and yet how firmly they are united together, so as never to be separated but by breaking them to pieces. One of those rattles singly, is incapable of producing sound, but the ringing of thirteen together, is sufficient to alarm the boldest man living.

The Rattle-Snake is solitary, and associates with her kind only when it is necessary for their preservation. In winter, the warmth of a number together will preserve their lives, while singly, they would probably perish. The power of fascination attributed to her, by a generous construction, may be understood to mean, that those who consider the liberty and blessings which America affords, and once come over to her, never afterwards leave her, but spend their lives with her. She strongly resembles America in this, that she is beautiful in youth and her beauty increaseth with her age, "her tongue also is blue and forked as the lightning, and her abode is among impenetrable rocks."
An American Guesser


** 8 Pieces?  There were 13 Colonies.  The key here is that NE stood for New England.  The Colonies of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Massachusetts, Connecticut and Rhode Island made up the New England Colonies.  So, that’s how 8 pieces can represent all 13 Colonies

Revolutionary Symbols: The Pine Tree

Pinus_strobus_old_tree_Appalachian_ParkThe White Pine of New England.  It’s the Sequoia of the East Coast.  And it has a long history in the making of America.  It also plays a role in Revolution.

Shortly after the first settlers arrived on the shores of what would become New England, they discovered this amazing tree.  It grows straight and strong,  hundreds of feet tall.  But it is also a very light wood and easily worked.  Its contribution to the industry and economy of the Colonies cannot be overstated.  These massive trunks became the masts for ships all over the world. And other wood harvested was crafted into a wide array of shipbuilding pieces and even items for farm and household use.

And here’s the rub.  The English Navy needed these trees for their ships.  So, of course, the King just marked them as his.  So let it be done.  The Kings Surveyors were authorized to search out and mark trees within ten miles of any navigable waters.  Broad_arrow_288They were so thorough that only the smaller trees were left for Americans’ use.  The fine for cutting down one of the trees marked with the Broad Arrow of the King was £100.

For the most part, Americans ignored the marks and took the trees anyway.  And England pretty  much said nothing.  Until the 1770’s.  And then the enforcement became intolerable.  The very livelihood of New England was threatened and the Colonists wouldn’t stand for it.  Who was this King to tell Americans they could not use trees they owned?  Resentments flared into  skirmishes throughout New England, with such names as “The White Pine War” and “The Pine Tree Riot”.


And the pine tree became yet another symbol rallying Americans to stand for Liberty.